SELINA Solutions for Class 9 Biology Chapter 10 - Nutrition

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Chapter 10 - Nutrition Exercise Ex. 1

Question A

Multiple Choice Questions:

1. Which one of the following pairs of nutrients includes both as simple sugars (monosaccharides)?

(a) Sucrose and glucose

(b) Glucose and maltose

(c) Fructose and glucose

(d) Maltose and lactose

2. Which one of the following is the correct matching of a nutrient mineral element and its one rich source?

(a) Calcium - Potato

(b) Sodium - Citrus fruits

(c) Iodine - Dairy milk

(d) Potassium - Banana

3. Marasmus is due to deficiency of:

(a) Vitamin C

(b) Carbohydrates

(c) Fat

(d) Food

4. Fat-soluble vitamins are

(a) A, D and E

(b) B, C and D

(c) B, D and E

(d) A, B and C

5. Which of the following is the best source of Vitamin A?

(a) Apple

(b) Honey

(c) Carrot

(d) Peanuts

6. Ascorbic acid is Vitamin:

(a) C

(b) D

(c) B

(d) A

Solution A

1. (c) Fructose and glucose

2. (d) Potassium - Banana

3. (b) and (c). (Note: Marasmus is mainly caused due to the deficiency of proteins, but as per the options provided, the right answer would be both carbohydrates and fats.)

4. (a) A, D and E

5. (c) Carrot

6. (a) C

Question B.1

Mention whether the following statements are true (T) or False (F).

(a) Cellulose in our food passes out undigested.  (T/F)

(b) Kwashiorkor is a severe vitamin deficiency disease. (T/F)

(c) Iron is required for the proper working of thyroid.(T/F)

(d) Foods protect us from disease and therefore antibiotics which protect us from disease are also foods.(T/F)

(e) Mineral salts contribute in regulating body processes.(T/F)

Solution B.1

(a) T (True)

(b) F (False). Kwashiorkor is a severe protein deficiency disease.

(c) F (False). Iodine is required for the proper working of thyroid.

(d) F (False). Antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system of the body, when it detects harmful substances called antigens.

(e) T (True)

Question B.2

Name the mineral element that is needed for the following respectively:

(i) Strong teeth

(ii) Proper working of thyroid

(iii) Synthesis of haemoglobin

Solution B.2

(i) Fluorine

(ii) Iodine

(iii) Iron

Question B.3

Name the nutrients whose deficiencies cause the following diseases in humans:

(i) Pernicious anaemia

(ii) Pellagra

(iii) Night blindness

(iv) Goitre

(v) Kwashiorkor

Solution B.3

(i) Pernicious anaemia - Vitamin B12

(ii) Pellagra - Vitamin B3

(iii) Night blindness - Vitamin A

(iv) Goitre - Mineral iodine

(v) Kwashiorkor - Proteins

Question B.4

Mark the odd one out in each of the following cases and name the category to which the others belong:

(i) Xerophthalmia, Marasmus, Pellagra, Scurvy

(ii) Riboflavin, Thiamine, Folic acid, Iodine

Solution B.4

(i) Odd term - Marasmus, Category - Vitamin deficiency diseases

(ii) Odd term - Iodine, Category - Vitamins

Question C.1

Give two examples of each of the following and their usefulness, if any, in our body.

(i) Monosaccharides

(ii) Disaccharides

(iii) Polysaccharides

Solution C.1

CARBOHYDRATES

EXAMPLES

USES

(i) Monosaccharides

1.Glucose

Provides an instant source of energy

2.Fructose

Needed for maintaining a healthy body

(ii) Disaccharides

1.Sucrose

Needed for good health

2.Maltose

Further broken down to produce glucose molecule which provides energy to the body

(iii) Polysaccharides

1.Cellulose

Acts as roughage which prevents constipation

2. Glycogen

Reserve carbohydrate in humans and stored in liver and muscles

Question C.2

Define and give one example of a balanced diet.

Solution C.2

Balanced diet is defined as the one which contains all the principal constituents of food in proper quantity.

Balanced diet is the one that provides at least 50% of energy from carbohydrate, 35% from fat, and 15% from protein. The precise optimal quantities of each nutrient will vary with age, sex and activity.

Question C.3

A doctor advises a bone patient to include more of milk and milk products in his everyday food. Why so?

Solution C.3

Bones are generally made of calcium and iron. Milk and milk products are rich in calcium and Vitamin A. That is why, a doctor advises a bone patient to include more of milk and milk products in his everyday food to make his bones and teeth strong. Milk also prevents oxidation of Vitamin A. Calcium present in milk even helps in clotting of blood. Milk, is therefore a wholesome food.

Question D.1

List the six main purposes for which food is required by the body.

Solution D.1

Need for food by the body:

(1) Growth: Food is necessary for building new protoplasm or cells. This helps in the growth of an organism.

(2) Repair: Food provides materials for the repair of worn out or damaged cells and tissues.

(3) Energy: We obtain energy from food. This energy is required for carrying out various life functions.

(4) Maintenance: Nutrients obtained through food help to maintain the chemical composition of cells.

(5) Provision of raw materials: Raw materials required for the synthesis of products such as enzymes, hormones, sweat, milk, etc. are obtained through food.

(6) Protection: Food provides protection from diseases and infection.

Question D.2

Why are proteins necessary in our food? Name one protein deficiency disease of young children.

Solution D.2

Proteins are the body building foods. They provide the chemical material for the growth and repair of body cells and tissues. At the time of emergency, proteins can also be oxidized in the body to release energy.

Protein deficiency disease of young children: Kwashiorkor

Question D.3

Taking the examples of whole grain atta, fruit and green leafy vegetables, describe how roughage in our diet is useful.

Solution D.3

Whole grain atta, fruits and green leafy vegetables are the chief sources of roughage.

(1) Roughage does not provide any nutrients to our body. It still has nutritive value and is essential for the proper functioning of the gut.

(2) It absorbs a lot of water and retains it. In this way, it keeps faecal matter soft preventing constipation.

(3) It combines with intestinal waste and makes it bulky.

(4) It helps in the formation of stools and helps our body to expel the undigested waste food.

(5) Roughage expands the intestinal lumen and helps in slow and smooth movement of food through the gastrointestinal tract. This movement is required for proper and complete digestion of food and for the elimination of intestinal waste.

(6) Roughage stimulates secretion from the digestive tract and also helps in removal of cholesterol, fatty secretory substances and toxins from the body.

Question E.1

Given alongside is an incomplete table of vitamins, their rich sources and the related deficiency diseases. Fill in the blanks [(i)-(viii)] with only one suitable word for each. 

 

VITAMIN

RICH SOURCE

DEFICIENCY DISEASE

(i) ..................

Whole grain

Beri-beri 

Niacin

Milk

(ii) ..................

(iii) ..................

(iv) ..................

Scurvy

Calciferol

(v) ..................

(vi) ..................

(vii) ..................

Carrot, yellow fruit

(viii) ..................

Solution E.1

VITAMIN

RICH SOURCE

DEFICIENCY DISEASE

(i) Thiamine

Whole grain

Beri-beri 

Niacin

Milk

(ii) Pellagra

(iii) Ascorbic acid

(iv) Citrus fruit

Scurvy

Calciferol

(v) Fish liver oil

(vi) Rickets

(vii) Retinol

Carrot, yellow fruit

(viii) Night blindness

 

Question E.2

Complete the following table by filling the blanks:

Mineral

Function

Rich Source

Iodine

……………………..

……………………..

 

……………………..

Formation of haemoglobin

 

……………………..

Calcium

……………………..

……………………..

Potassium

……………………..

……………………..

Solution E.2

Mineral

Function

Rich Source

Iodine

Promotes the secretion of thyroxine by the thyroid gland

Iodised salt, sea foods

Iron

Formation of haemoglobin

Whole cereals, fish

Calcium

Allows muscle contraction and clotting of blood

Dairy foods, beans

Potassium

Controls nerve and muscle activity, fluid balance, secretion of neurotransmitter

Banana, potato