NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 - Manufacturing Industries

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Chapter 6 - Manufacturing Industries Exercise 79

Solution 1

(i) (b) Cement

(ii) (b) SAIL

(iii) (a) Aluminium

(iv) (b) Electronic

Solution 2

(i) The process of converting raw materials into finished goods is known as manufacturing. Raw materials in some cases may also be manufactured products.

(ii) Physical factors essential in deciding the location of an industry are : availability of raw materials, availability of capital, favourable climate and the proximity to the market.

(iii) Human factors essential in deciding the location of an industry are : availability of cheap labour, availability of skilled and unskilled labour, availability of services such as consultants and financial advisors.

(iv) Basic industries are those industries on which many other light, medium and heavy industries depend upon for their machinery. For example, iron and steel industry is a basic industry as it provides steel to many other industries like automobiles, defence, engineering etc. 

(v) The important raw materials used in the manufacturing of cement are: limestone, alumina, silica, gypsum and coal.

Solution 3

(i) An integrated steel plant is a large steel manufacturing plant where many processes from integrating raw materials to steel making, rolling and shaping are handled in one complex.

A mini steel plant on the other hand, is smaller and has electric furnaces, use steel scrap and sponge iron. It produced mild and alloy steel of given specifications.

The problems which this industry faces are the following:

a. limited availability of coking coal and high production costs

b. lower productivity of labour

c. poor infrastructure

 d. irregular supply of energy

Recent developments that have led to a rise in the production capacity of this industry are liberalisation and Foreign Direct Investment, with help from private entrepreneurs. 

(ii) I

Air Pollution: Smoke emitted by chemical industries, brick kilns, smelting plants and refineries cause air pollution.  Presence of toxic gases like carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide etc and suspended dust particles also pollute the air. Most industries in India do not follow pollution norms. Release of toxic gases may prove hazardous to human health, animals and plant life.


Water Pollution: Water pollution is caused when organic and inorganic wastes are discharged by industries into the rivers, lakes and ponds. Paper and pulp industries, chemical, refineries, dyeing, textile industries etc. discharge detergents, chemicals, acids and salts into the rivers. Thermal pollution occurs when hot water is discharged from factories into rivers and lakes. This affects the aquatic life.

Land Pollution: Dumping of solid, organic and inorganic wastes like plastics, paper and cans causes land pollution and degrades the quality of soil.

Noise Pollution: Industrial and construction activities, sound of machinery, generators, electric drills etc produce noise pollution which can cause hearing impairment, increased heart rate and other psychological effects.

Noise pollution results from industrial and construction activities, machinery, generators, and saws, pneumatic and electric drills.

(iii) Steps which could be taken to minimize environmental degradation are:

  1. To treat hot water and effluents before releasing them into rivers and ponds.
  2. Using of electrostatic precipitators, fabric filters, scrubbers etc in factories may control air pollution to some extent.
  3. Use of oil and gas instead of coal in the industries may also reduce air pollution.
  4. Fitting of generators with silencers and the use of noise absorbing materials goes a long way in reducing the level of noise pollution.

ion, smoke stacks should be fitted to factories with electrostatic precipitators, fabric filters, scrubbers and inertial separators. Also, smoke can be reduced by using oil or gas instead of coal.

(c) Noise pollution can be controlled by fitting generators with silencers, redesigning machinery to reduce noise, using noise absorbing material and personal earplugs and earphones.


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