NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Geography Chapter 4 - Agriculture

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Chapter 4 - Agriculture Exercise 48

Solution 1

(i) (b) Plantation Agriculture

(ii) (b) Gram

(iii) (a) Pulses

(iv) (b) Minimum support price

Solution 2

(i) Tea is an important beverage crop. Tea plants need tropical or sub tropical climates, deep and fertile well-drained soil rich in humus and organic matter. Tea bushes need warm, moist ,frost free climate. Frequent showers distributed throughout the year is also essential.

(ii) Rice is the staple food crop of India. It is mainly grows in the plains of north and north-east India, coastal areas and the deltaic regions.

(iii) The various institutional reform programmes introduced by the government for the benefit of farmers are :- Minimum Support Price policy, subsidy on agricultural inputs, provision for crop insurance and resources such as power and fertilisers, remunerative and procurement prices for important crops to check exploitation of farmers, establishment of  Grameen banks, cooperative societies and banks to provide low interest loans, Kissan Credit Card and Personal Accident Insurance Scheme.

(iv) A declining area of land under cultivation may result in shortage of food grains. The problem may become acute in case of rising population of the country. This would result in import of food grains which will put additional pressure on the economy of the country.

Solution 3

 (i) To ensure increase in agricultural production, the government passed Five years Plans whereby importance was given to land reforms. Green Revolution and White Revolution were started to improve agriculture. However, it benefited only few farmers. In order to provide cheap loans to the farmers many ‘Grameen banks’ or cooperative credit societies have been established in various villages. The government abolished the zamindari system and has focused on collectivisation and consolidation of land holdings in order to prevent fragmentation of land.

 (ii) Globalisation in its crude form had affected the Indian agriculture during the colonial times. Indian spices and cotton was exported to Europe. British textile industries flourished due to the availability of fine quality of cotton from India.

During the 1990s, globalisation impacted the Indian agriculture. Indian farmers were not able to compete with the developed countries due to highly subsidised agriculture in these countries. Many small farmers need the support of the government to face growing competition from the developed nations of the world.

(iii) Rice is a staple crop of the majority of the people of India. It is a kharif crop which requires high temperature above 250C and high humidity. It requires rainfall above 100cm. In regions of less rainfall, rice grows with the help of irrigation.


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