ICSE class 10 Biology Previous Year Question Paper 2019

Biology is one of the crucial subjects in ICSE Class 10. ICSE Class 10 Biology speaks about the cell as the basic unit of life, genes, and evolution and deals with how living organisms interact with the environment, including the behavior of living beings. TopperLearning is one of the premier online platforms which helps students of ICSE Class 10 to study various concepts in Biology.

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Q 1. 

(a) Name the following:

(i) The layer of the eyeball that provides nourishment to the eye.

(ii) One gaseous compound which depletes the ozone layer.

(iii) The structure which connects the placenta and the foetus.

(iv) A pair of corresponding chromosomes of the same shape and size and derived one from each parent.

(v) The compound formed when haemoglobin combines with carbon dioxide in blood.

 

(b)  Correct and rewrite the statements by changing the biological term that is underlined for each statement.                 

(i) The theory of inheritance of acquired characters was proposed by Watson and Crick.

(ii) The protective sac which develops around the developing embryo is called the pericardium.

(iii) Maintaining balance of the body and coordinating muscular activities is carried out by the cerebrum.

(iv) The kidney is composed of a number of neurons.

(v)  The part of the eye which can be donated from a clinically dead person is the retina.

 

(c) Give suitable biological reasons for the following statements: 

(i) The birth rate in India is very high.

(ii) Carbon monoxide is dangerous when inhaled.

(iii) Root hairs become flaccid and droop when excess fertilisers are added to the moist soil around them.

(iv) Acid rain is harmful to the environment.

(v) All life on Earth is supported by photosynthesis.

 

(d) Match the items given in Column A with the most appropriate ones in Column B and REWRITE the correct matching pairs.

Column A Column B
(i) Cranial nerves           (a) Testosterone
(ii) Leydig cells (b) Natural reflex
(iii) Acetylcholine (c) 12 pairs
(iv) Spinal nerves (d) Prolactin
(v) Sneezing (e) Neurotransmitter
  (f) 18 pairs
  (g) 31 pairs
  (h) Conditioned reflex


(e) Choose the correct answer  from the four options given below:

(i) While recording the pulse rate, where exactly does a doctor press on our wrist?

A. Nerve

B. Vein

C. Artery

D. Capillary

(ii) In a human male, a sperm will contain

A. Both X and Y chromosomes

B. Only Y chromosome

C. Only X chromosome

D. Either X or Y chromosome

(iii) A muscular wall is absent in

A. Capillary

B. Venule

C. Arteriole

D. Vein

(iv) On which day of the menstrual cycle does ovulation take place?

A. 5th day

B. 28th day

C. 14th day

D. 1st day

(v) Which one of the following does not affect the rate of transpiration?

A. Light

B. Humidity

C. Wind

D. Age of the plant

 

(f) Identify the ODD term in each set  and name the CATEGORY in which the remaining of these belong:

Example: Glucose, starch, cellulose, calcium

Odd term: Calcium

Category: Others are different types of carbohydrates.

(i) Addison’s disease, Cushing’s Syndrome, Acromegaly, Leukemia

(ii) Insulin, Adrenaline, Pepsin, Thyroxine

(iii) Axon, Dendron, Photon, Cyton

(iv) Chicken pox, Colour blindness, Haemophilia, Albinism

(v) Polythene bag, Crop residue, Animal waste, Decaying vegetable

 

(g) Expand the following biological abbreviations:

(i) ABA

(ii) IAA

(iii) ATP

(iv) DNA

(v) TSH

 

(h) Study the picture given below and answer the following questions:

(i) Identify the type of pollution.

(ii) Name one pollutant that causes the above pollution.

(iii) Mention the impact of this pollution on human health.

(iv) State one measure to control this pollution.

(v)  What is a ‘pollutant’? Explain the term.


Q 2.

(a) Given below is an experimental set-up to demonstrate a particular tropic movement in germinating seeds. Study the diagram and answer the questions that follow:

 

(i) Label the parts 1 and 2.

(ii) Name the tropic movement shown by part 1.

(iii) Part 1 is affected by two stimuli. Name them.

Which one of the two is stronger?

(iv) What is thigmotropism? Give one example.

(v) What is meant by ‘positive’ and ‘negative’ tropic movements in plants?

 

(b) Mention the exact location of the following:

(i) Testis

(ii) Incus

(iii) Thylakoids

(iv) Amniotic fluid

(v) Corpus callosum

 

Q 3.

(a) The diagram given below represents an experiment to prove the importance of a factor in photosynthesis. Answer the questions that follow.

(i) Name the factor studied in this experiment.

(ii) What will you observe in the experimental leaf after the starch test?

(iii) Explain the process of photosynthesis.

(iv) Give a balanced chemical equation to represent the process of photosynthesis.

(v) Draw a neat, labelled diagram of an experimental set-up to show that oxygen is released during photosynthesis.

 

(b) State the main function of the following:

(i) Medulla oblongata

(ii) Cytokinins

(iii) Tears

(iv) Coronary artery

(v) Seminal vesicles

 

Q 4. 

(a) The diagram given below represents an organ system in the human body. Study the same and answer the questions that follow:

 

(i) Identify the system.

(ii) Label the parts marked 2 and 4. Mention the function of part 5.

(iii) Name the structural and functional units of the part marked 1.

(iv) What is the fluid that accumulates in part 3? Which is the main nitrogenous waste present in it?

(v) Draw a neat, labelled diagram showing the longitudinal section of part 1.

 

(b) The diagram given below represents an endocrine gland in the human body.Study the diagram and answer the following questions:

(i) Identify the endocrine gland. Where is it located?

(ii) Why is the above gland referred to as the ‘master gland’?

(iii) Name the hormone which in deficiency causes diabetes insipidus. How does this disorder differ from diabetes mellitus?

(iv) Explain the term ‘hormone’.

      What is the role of tropic hormones in the human body?

(v) Which lobe of the above gland secretes

1.  Oxytocin

2. ACTH

3. Growth hormone

 

Q 5.

(a) Given below is an apparatus which was set up to investigate a physiological process in plants. The set-up was placed in bright sunlight. Answer the questions that follow:

(i) Name the process being studied. Define the process.

(ii) Why was the pot enclosed in a rubber sheet?

(iii) Mention two external factors which can accelerate the above process.

(iv) List two adaptations in plants to reduce the above process.

(v) Draw a neat, labelled diagram of a stomatal apparatus.

 

(b) Given below are two stages in the evolution of man.Study them and answer the questions that follow:

(i) Identify Australopithecus and Neanderthal man from the above pictures.

(ii) Mention two characteristic features each for the two stages.

(iii) Who proposed the theory of ‘natural selection’?

(iv) Name the organism used as an example to explain 'industrial melanism'.

(v) Give two examples of vestigial organs in humans.

 

Q 6.

(a) In Mendel's experiments, tall pea plants (T) are dominant over dwarf pea plants (t).

(i) What is the phenotype and genotype of the F1 generation if a homozygous tall plant is crossed with a homozygous dwarf plant?

(ii) Draw a Punnett square board to show the gametes and offspring when both parents are heterozygous for tallness.

(iii) What is the phenotypic ratio and genotypic ratio of the above cross in (ii)?

(iv) State Mendel’s Law of Dominance.

(v) What is a dihybrid cross?

 

(b) Given below is a diagram representing a stage during mitotic cell division. Study the diagram and answer the following questions.

(i) Identify the stage by giving a suitable reason.

(ii) Is it a plant or an animal cell? Give a reason to support your answer.

(iii) Draw a neat, labelled diagram of the stage which follows the one shown in the diagram.

(iv) How many chromosomes will each daughter cell have after the completion of the above division?

(v) Name the four nitrogenous bases.


Q 7.

(a)  Answer the following questions briefly:

(i) How are the cytons and axons placed in the brain and the spinal cord?

(ii) Which part of the human ear gives ‘dynamic balance’ and ‘static balance’ to the body?

(iii) Explain how the human eye adapts itself to bright light and dim light.

(iv) What is parthenocarpy? Give one example.

(v) Mention any two objectives of 'Swachh Bharat Abhiyan'.

 

(b) The diagram given below represents a system in the human body. Study the diagram and answer the following questions:

(i) Identify the system.

(ii) Label the parts marked 5 and 6.

(iii) Name the two hormones secreted by 1.

(iv) Mention the number and the name of the part involved in fertilisation and implantation from the above diagram.

(v) Mention the surgical methods of contraception in

1. Human males

2. Human females

Q 1. 

(a) Name the following:

(i) The layer of the eyeball that provides nourishment to the eye.

(ii) One gaseous compound which depletes the ozone layer.

(iii) The structure which connects the placenta and the foetus.

(iv) A pair of corresponding chromosomes of the same shape and size and derived one from each parent.

(v) The compound formed when haemoglobin combines with carbon dioxide in blood.

 

(b)  Correct and rewrite the statements by changing the biological term that is underlined for each statement.                 

(i) The theory of inheritance of acquired characters was proposed by Watson and Crick.

(ii) The protective sac which develops around the developing embryo is called the pericardium.

(iii) Maintaining balance of the body and coordinating muscular activities is carried out by the cerebrum.

(iv) The kidney is composed of a number of neurons.

(v)  The part of the eye which can be donated from a clinically dead person is the retina.

 

(c) Give suitable biological reasons for the following statements: 

(i) The birth rate in India is very high.

(ii) Carbon monoxide is dangerous when inhaled.

(iii) Root hairs become flaccid and droop when excess fertilisers are added to the moist soil around them.

(iv) Acid rain is harmful to the environment.

(v) All life on Earth is supported by photosynthesis.

 

(d) Match the items given in Column A with the most appropriate ones in Column B and REWRITE the correct matching pairs.

Column A Column B
(i) Cranial nerves           (a) Testosterone
(ii) Leydig cells (b) Natural reflex
(iii) Acetylcholine (c) 12 pairs
(iv) Spinal nerves (d) Prolactin
(v) Sneezing (e) Neurotransmitter
  (f) 18 pairs
  (g) 31 pairs
  (h) Conditioned reflex


(e) Choose the correct answer  from the four options given below:

(i) While recording the pulse rate, where exactly does a doctor press on our wrist?

A. Nerve

B. Vein

C. Artery

D. Capillary

 

(ii) In a human male, a sperm will contain

A. Both X and Y chromosomes

B. Only Y chromosome

C. Only X chromosome

D. Either X or Y chromosome

 

(iii) A muscular wall is absent in

A. Capillary

B. Venule

C. Arteriole

D. Vein

 

(iv) On which day of the menstrual cycle does ovulation take place?

A. 5th day

B. 28th day

C. 14th day

D. 1st day

 

(v) Which one of the following does not affect the rate of transpiration?

A. Light

B. Humidity

C. Wind

D. Age of the plant

 

(f) Identify the ODD term in each set  and name the CATEGORY in which the remaining of these belong:

Example: Glucose, starch, cellulose, calcium

Odd term: Calcium

Category: Others are different types of carbohydrates.

(i) Addison’s disease, Cushing’s Syndrome, Acromegaly, Leukemia

(ii) Insulin, Adrenaline, Pepsin, Thyroxine

(iii) Axon, Dendron, Photon, Cyton

(iv) Chicken pox, Colour blindness, Haemophilia, Albinism

(v) Polythene bag, Crop residue, Animal waste, Decaying vegetable

 

(g) Expand the following biological abbreviations:

(i) ABA

(ii) IAA

(iii) ATP

(iv) DNA

(v) TSH

 

(h) Study the picture given below and answer the following questions:

(i) Identify the type of pollution.

(ii) Name one pollutant that causes the above pollution.

(iii) Mention the impact of this pollution on human health.

(iv) State one measure to control this pollution.

(v) What is a ‘pollutant’? Explain the term.

Solution:

(a)

(i) Choroid layer

(ii) Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)

(iii) Umbilical cord

(iv) Homologous chromosomes

(v) Carbaminohaemoglobin

 

(b)      

(i) The theory of inheritance of acquired characters was proposed by Jean Baptiste de Lamarck.

(ii) The protective sac which develops around the developing embryo is called the amnion.

(iii) Maintaining balance of the body and coordinating muscular activities is carried out by the cerebellum.

(iv) The kidney is composed of number of nephrons.

(v) The part of the eye which can be donated from a clinically dead person is the cornea.

 

(c)                      

(i) The birth rate in India is very high because most of the rural population which forms the bulk of our society are illiterate, ignorant and superstitious. They are unware of the need for family planning.

(ii) Carbon monoxide when inhaled and absorbed into the blood binds with haemoglobin and forms an irreversible complex called carboxyhaemoglobin. The formation of this complex reduces the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood. Hence, carbon monoxide is highly dangerous when inhaled.

(iii) Addition of too much fertiliser to moist soil results in flaccidity of root hair, because the concentration of soil solution increases and water starts coming out of the root hair due to the process of osmosis.

(iv) Acid rain is harmful to the environment because acidic water decreases agricultural productivity and affects aquatic life. Buildings and monuments are corroded due to acid rain. The fine particles of sulphates and nitrates degrade visibility and harm human health.

(v) Plants   prepare   their   food   by   the   process   of   photosynthesis.  Herbivores   are dependent on plants for their food. Carnivores depend on herbivores. All animals directly or indirectly are dependent on plants to obtain food for energy. Therefore, photosynthesis is considered a process supporting all life on Earth.

 

(d) 

Column A Column B (Answers) 
 (i) Cranial nerves  (c) 12 pairs
 (ii) Leydig cells  (a) Testosterone
 (iii) Acetylcholine  (e) Neurotransmitter
 (iv) Spinal nerves  (g) 31 pairs
 (v) Sneezing  (b) Natural reflex

 

(e) 

(i) C. Artery

(Pulse is the alternate expansion and elastic recoil of the wall of the artery during ventricular systole.) 

(ii) D. Either X or Y chromosome

(All eggs contain X chromosome, but sperms contain either X or Y chromosome.)

(iii) A. Capillary

(Arteries which terminate into arterioles have thin muscular walls, while veins which terminate into venules have thick muscular walls. Capillary walls do not have muscles.)

(iv) C. 14th day

(On the 13th or 14th day, the follicle ruptures and an egg is released from the ovary.)

(v) D. Age of the plant

(Transpiration rate increases with an increase in intensity of light, temperature and wind velocity.)

 

(f)

(i) Odd term: Leukemia

Category: Others are disorders caused by hypo or hypersecretion of hormones. 

(ii) Odd term: Pepsin

Category: Others are hormones secreted by the endocrine glands.

(iii) Odd term: Photon

Category: Others are parts of a neuron.

(iv) Odd term: Chicken pox

Category: Others are X-linked genetic disorders.

(v) Odd term: Polythene bag

Category: Others are biodegradable wastes.

 

(g)

(i) ABA: Abscisic acid

(ii)  IAA: Indole-3-acetic acid 

(iii) ATP: Adenosine triphosphate

(iv) DNA: Deoxyribonucleic acid

(v)  TSH: Thyroid-stimulating hormone

 

(h) 

(i) Water pollution

(ii) Oil spills

(iii) Water pollution makes water unfit for human consumption. It kills a lot of marine life.

(iv) Water pollution can be controlled by treating waste water before release into water bodies.

(v) Pollutant is a constituent which when added to air, water or land deteriorates the natural quality of the environment.

 

Q 2.

(a) Given below is an experimental set-up to demonstrate a particular tropic movement in germinating seeds. Study the diagram and answer the questions that follow:

 

(i) Label the parts 1 and 2.

(ii) Name the tropic movement shown by part 1.

(iii) Part 1 is affected by two stimuli. Name them.

Which one of the two is stronger?

(iv) What is thigmotropism? Give one example.

(v) What is meant by ‘positive’ and ‘negative’ tropic movements in plants?

 

(b) Mention the exact location of the following:

(i) Testis

(ii) Incus

(iii) Thylakoids

(iv) Amniotic fluid

(v) Corpus callosum

Solution:

(a)

(i) 1: Radicle

2: Plumule

(ii) Geotropism

(iii) Part 1 is affected by the following stimuli:

  • Water
  • Gravity

Water is a more effective and stronger stimulus than gravity.

(iv) The growth movement of plants in response to touch stimulus is called thigmotropism.

Example: Coiling of tendrils around other plants or a support in response to one-sided contact or touch.

(v) The growth movement of plants in the direction of the stimulus is called positive tropism. The growth movement of plants away from the direction of the stimulus is called negative tropism.


(b) 

(i) Testis: Contained in a thin-walled sac of skin called the scrotum

(ii) Incus: Located in the middle ear and joined to the stapes or stirrup bone

(iii) Thylakoids: Located inside the stroma of chloroplast

(iv) Amniotic fluid: Present between the amnion and the embryo

(v) Corpus callosum: Situated inside the brain between two cerebral hemispheres


Q 3.

(a) The diagram given below represents an experiment to prove the importance of a factor in photosynthesis. Answer the questions that follow.

(i) Name the factor studied in this experiment.

(ii) What will you observe in the experimental leaf after the starch test?

(iii) Explain the process of photosynthesis.

(iv) Give a balanced chemical equation to represent the process of photosynthesis.

(v) Draw a neat, labelled diagram of an experimental set-up to show that oxygen is released during photosynthesis.

 

(b) State the main function of the following:

(i) Medulla oblongata

(ii) Cytokinins

(iii) Tears

(iv) Coronary artery

(v) Seminal vesicles

Solution:

(a)

(i) Sunlight

(ii) After the starch test, the part of the leaf which was exposed to light turned blue black, while the part of the leaf which was covered with black paper turned brown.

(iii) Photosynthesis is a physiological process in which all green plants are able to synthesise food from carbon dioxide and water in the presence of sunlight and chlorophyll.

(iv) Balanced chemical equation for photosynthesis:

(v) Experimental set-up to show that oxygen is released during photosynthesis:

(b)

(i) Medulla oblongata: Controls the activities of the internal organs

(ii) Cytokinins: Stimulate cell division and cell enlargement

(iii) Tears: Wash away dust particles and kill the germs present in the eye

(iv) Coronary artery: Supply blood to the heart muscles

(v) Seminal vesicles: Produce a secretion which serves as a medium for the transport of sperms


Q 4. 

(a) The diagram given below represents an organ system in the human body. Study the same and answer the questions that follow:

(i) Identify the system.

(ii) Label the parts marked 2 and 4. Mention the function of part 5.

(iii) Name the structural and functional units of the part marked 1.

(iv) What is the fluid that accumulates in part 3? Which is the main nitrogenous waste present in it?

(v) Draw a neat, labelled diagram showing the longitudinal section of part 1.

 

(b) The diagram given below represents an endocrine gland in the human body.Study the diagram and answer the following questions:

(i) Identify the endocrine gland. Where is it located?

(ii) Why is the above gland referred to as the ‘master gland’?

(iii) Name the hormone which in deficiency causes diabetes insipidus. How does this disorder differ from diabetes mellitus?

(iv) Explain the term ‘hormone’.

      What is the role of tropic hormones in the human body?

(v) Which lobe of the above gland secretes

1.  Oxytocin

2. ACTH

3. Growth hormone

Solution: 

(a)

(i) Excretory system in humans

(ii) 2: Ureter

4: Sphincter

Function of part 5 (Urethra): It releases the urine collected in the urinary bladder outside the body.

(iii) Nephrons

(iv) Urine

(v) Urea

(vi) Longitudinal section of part 1 (kidney):

(b) 

(i) Pituitary gland. It is located at the base of the mid-brain below the hypothalamus.

(ii) The pituitary gland is referred to as the master gland because it controls the functioning of the other endocrine glands.

(iii) Diabetes insipidus: Deficiency of antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

Diabetes insipidus Diabetes mellitus
  • Deficiency of antidiuretic hormone
  • Deficiency of insulin

(iv) Hormones are secretions from specific cells or glands in the body and are carried to all parts of the body through blood, but their effect is produced in one or more specific parts only.  

Tropic hormones in the human body stimulate the other endocrine glands to release their hormones. 

(v) 

1. Oxytocin: Posterior pituitary lobe

2. ACTH: Anterior pituitary lobe

3. Growth hormone: Anterior pituitary lobe

 

Q 5.

(a) Given below is an apparatus which was set up to investigate a physiological process in plants. The set-up was placed in bright sunlight. Answer the questions that follow:

(i) Name the process being studied. Define the process.

(ii) Why was the pot enclosed in a rubber sheet?

(iii) Mention two external factors which can accelerate the above process.

(iv) List two adaptations in plants to reduce the above process.

(v) Draw a neat, labelled diagram of a stomatal apparatus.

 

(b) Given below are two stages in the evolution of man.Study them and answer the questions that follow:

(i) Identify Australopithecus and Neanderthal man from the above pictures.

(ii) Mention two characteristic features each for the two stages.

(iii) Who proposed the theory of ‘natural selection’?

(iv) Name the organism used as an example to explain 'industrial melanism'.

(v) Give two examples of vestigial organs in humans.

Solution:

(a)

(i) Transpiration

Transpiration is the loss of water in the form of water vapour from the leaves and other aerial parts of the plant.

(ii) The pot was enclosed in a rubber sheet to prevent the escape of water vapour from the pot.

(iii) External factors which can accelerate the process of transpiration:

  • Sunlight
  • Temperature
  • Wind velocity

(iv) Adaptations in plants to reduce excessive transpiration:

  • Sunken stomata
  • Fewer stomata
  • Narrow leaves
  • Reduced exposed surfaces
  • Loss of leaves
  • Thick cuticle

(v) Stomatal apparatus:

 

(i) A: Neanderthal man

B: Australopithecus

(ii)  Characteristic features of Australopithecus:

  • Cranial capacity of 450–600 cm3.
  • Vertebral column has a distinct lumbar curve with a broad pelvis.

Characteristic features of Neanderthal man:

  • Cranial capacity was about 1450 cm3.
  • Absolute bipedalism, large head and prominent brow ridges.

(iii) The theory of natural selection was proposed by the English scientist Charles Darwin.

(iv) Peppered moth – Biston betularia

(v) Vestigial organs in humans:

  • Wisdom teeth
  • Vermiform appendix
  • Pinna

 

Q 6.

(a) In Mendel's experiments, tall pea plants (T) are dominant over dwarf pea plants (t).

(i) What is the phenotype and genotype of the F1 generation if a homozygous tall plant is crossed with a homozygous dwarf plant?

(ii) Draw a Punnett square board to show the gametes and offspring when both parents are heterozygous for tallness.

(iii) What is the phenotypic ratio and genotypic ratio of the above cross in (ii)?

(iv) State Mendel’s Law of Dominance.

(v) What is a dihybrid cross?

 

(b) Given below is a diagram representing a stage during mitotic cell division. Study the diagram and answer the following questions.

(i) Identify the stage by giving a suitable reason.

(ii) Is it a plant or an animal cell? Give a reason to support your answer.

(iii) Draw a neat, labelled diagram of the stage which follows the one shown in the diagram.

(iv) How many chromosomes will each daughter cell have after the completion of the above division?

(v) Name the four nitrogenous bases.

Solution:

(a)

(i) FI generation phenotype: Tall

FI generation genotype: Tt

(ii) Parents are heterozygous for tallness, i.e. Tt.

 

T

t

T

TT (Tall)

Tt (Tall)

t

Tt (Tall)

tt (Dwarf)

 

(iii) Phenotypic ratio: 3:1

Genotypic ratio: 1:2:1

(iv) Mendel’s law of dominance: Out of a pair of contrasting characters present together, only one is able to express itself, while the other remains suppressed.

(v) A cross which involves two pairs of contrasting characters is called a dihybrid cross.

(b)

(i) The given stage is Anaphase as the sister chromatids of each chromosome separate and are drawn apart towards the opposite poles.

(ii) It is an animal cell as we can see centrioles at the opposite poles of the cell.

(iii) Telophase follows the stage of Anaphase. 

(iv) Each daughter cell will receive one set of chromosomes present in the parent cell (23 chromosomes in humans).

(v)  Four nitrogenous bases:

  • Adenine
  • Guanine
  • Cytosine
  • Thymine


Q 7.

(a)  Answer the following questions briefly:

(i) How are the cytons and axons placed in the brain and the spinal cord?

(ii) Which part of the human ear gives ‘dynamic balance’ and ‘static balance’ to the body?

(iii) Explain how the human eye adapts itself to bright light and dim light.

(iv) What is parthenocarpy? Give one example.

(v) Mention any two objectives of 'Swachh Bharat Abhiyan'.

 

(b) The diagram given below represents a system in the human body. Study the diagram and answer the following questions:

(i) Identify the system.

(ii) Label the parts marked 5 and 6.

(iii) Name the two hormones secreted by 1.

(iv) Mention the number and the name of the part involved in fertilisation and implantation from the above diagram.

(v) Mention the surgical methods of contraception in

1. Human males

2. Human females

Solution:

(a)             

(i) In the brain, grey matter containing cytons is placed on the outer portion, while white matter containing axons is placed on the inner portion. In the spinal cord, grey matter is placed on the inner portion, while white matter is placed on the outer portion.

(ii) The inner ear or membranous labyrinth gives dynamic balance and static balance to the body.

(iii) The iris of the human eye contains radial muscles to widen and circular muscles to constrict the pupil. This adjustment of the size of the pupil helps to regulate the amount of light entering the eye.

(iv) Development of fruits without fertilisation is called parthenocarpy.

Example: Auxins induce fruit formation without fertilisation in fruits like apples, bananas and tomatoes.

(v) Objectives of Swachh Bharat Abhiyan:

  • To clean the streets, roads and infrastructure of the country’s cities and towns
  • To establish an accounting mechanism of monitoring latrine use

(b)                         

(i) Female reproductive system

(ii) 5: Funnel of the fallopian tube/oviduct

6: Cervix

(iii) Hormones secreted by 1 (ovary):

  • Oestrogen
  • Progesterone

(iv) 

Process

Number

Name

Fertilisation

2

Fallopian tube/oviduct

Implantation

3

Uterus

(v)     

1.      Human males: Vasectomy

2.      Human females: Tubectomy

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