CBSE Class 12-science Syllabus

  • Chemistry |  View Syllabus

    • The Solid State

      • Crystalline and Amorphous Solids
      • Three Dimensional Packing
      • Packing Efficiency
      • Crystal Lattice
      • Dimensions of Unit Cells
      • Imperfections in Crystals


      • Strength of Solutions
      • Ideal Solutions
      • Osmosis and Osmotic Pressure
      • Boiling and Freezing Points of Solutions
      • Association and Dissociation
      • Solubility


      • Conductivity of Solutions
      • Kohlrausch's Law
      • Electrolysis
      • Electrochemical Cells
      • Standard Electrode Potential
      • Nernst Equation
      • Batteries
      • Corrosion

      Chemical Kinetics

      • Rate of Chemical Reaction
      • Order and Molecularity of Reaction
      • Integrated Rate Equation
      • Temperature Dependence of Reaction
      • Collision Theory

      Surface Chemistry

      • Adsorption
      • Catalysis
      • Emulsions
      • Types of Colloids
      • Properties of Colloids

      Isolation of Elements

      • Occurrence and Extraction
      • Principles of Metallurgy

      The p-Block Elements

      • Trends in Properties of p-Block
      • Nitrogen and Its Compounds
      • Phosphorus and Its Compounds
      • Oxygen
      • Sulphur and Its Compounds
      • Halogens
      • Group 18 Elements

      The d-Block and f-Block Elements

      • Introduction to d-Block Elements
      • Properties of d-Block Elements
      • Important Compounds of d-Block
      • Lanthanoids and Actinoids

      Coordination Compounds

      • Introduction to Co-ordination Compounds
      • Nomenclature of Co-ordination Compounds
      • Valence Bond Theory
      • Crystal Field Theory

      Haloalkanes and Haloarenes

      • Characteristics of Halo Compounds
      • General Methods of Preparation
      • Chemical Properties
      • Polyhalogen Compounds

      Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers

      • Introduction to Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
      • Preparation of Alcohols and Phenols
      • Properties of Alcohols
      • Characteristics of Phenols
      • Ethers : Preparation and Properties

      Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids

      • General Study of Carbonyl Compounds
      • Aldehydes and Ketones
      • Carboxylic Acids


      • Study of Nitrogen Functional Group
      • Preparation of Amines
      • Properties of Amines
      • Diazonium Salts


      • Carbohydrates
      • Proteins, Enzymes and Vitamins
      • DNA and RNA


      • Classification of Polymers
      • Addition and Condensation Polymers

      Chemistry in Everyday Life

      • Classification of Drugs and their Target Interaction
      • Therapeutic Action of Drugs
      • Food Additives and Cleansing Agents
  • Mathematics |  View Syllabus

    • Relations and Functions

      • Introduction to Relations
      • Introduction to Functions
      • Problems on Functions
      • Composition of Functions
      • Problems on Composition
      • Binary Operations

      Inverse Trigonometric Functions

      • Introduction: Inverse Trigonometry
      • Properties of Inverse Trigonometry


      • Introduction to Matrices
      • Matrix Operations
      • Transpose of A Matrix
      • Elementary Operations


      • Introduction to Determinants
      • Properties of Determinants
      • Properties and Applications of Determinants
      • Minors and Co-factors
      • Solving Simultaneous Equations

      Continuity and Differentiability

      • Continuity
      • Differentiability and Chain Rule
      • Differentiation: Implicit Functions
      • Differentiation of Exponential Functions
      • Logarithmic Functions
      • Differentiation of Parametric Functions
      • Second Order Derivatives
      • Mean Value Theorems

      Applications of Derivatives

      • Rate of Change and Approximations
      • Increasing and Decreasing Functions
      • Tangents and Normals
      • Maxima - Minima - I Derivative Test
      • Maxima - Minima - II Derivative Test


      • Introduction to Integration
      • Integration by Substitution
      • Integrals of Special Functions
      • Integrals of Trigonometric Identities
      • Integration by Partial Fractions
      • Integration by Parts
      • More Problems on Integration
      • Limit of A Sum
      • Properties of Definite Integrals
      • Evaluating Definite Integrals
      • Problems on Definite Integrals

      Applications of Integrals

      • Area Between A Curve and A Line
      • Area Between Two Curves

      Differential Equations

      • Intro: Differential Equations
      • Variable Separable Form
      • Homogenous Differential Equations
      • Linear Differential Equations

      Vector Algebra

      • Introduction to Vector Algebra
      • Properties of Vectors
      • Scalar Product of Two Vectors
      • Cross Product

      Three Dimensional Geometry

      • Introduction to 3-D Geometry
      • Cartesian Equation of A Line
      • Skew Lines
      • Equation of Plane
      • Intercept Form and Family of Planes
      • Distance of A Point From A Plane

      Linear Programming

      • Introduction to Linear Programming
      • Optimal Solution
      • Solution of Linear Programming Problems


      • Introduction to Conditional Probability
      • Independent Events
      • Bayes' Theorem
      • Distribution of Random Variables
      • Mean and Variance of A Random Variable
      • Binomial Distribution
  • Physics |  View Syllabus

    • Electric Charges and Fields

      • Electric Charge
      • Coulomb's Law
      • Electric Field
      • Electric Flux
      • Electric Dipole
      • Gauss Law
      • Gold Leaf Electroscope

      Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance

      • Electrostatic Potential
      • Equipotential Surfaces
      • Electrostatic Potential Energy
      • Electrostatics of Conductors
      • Capacitors
      • Combination of Capacitors
      • Electrostatics of Dielectrics

      Current Electricity

      • Ohm's Law
      • Drift of Electrons and Resistivity
      • Combination of Resistors
      • emfs and Internal Resistance
      • Combination of Cells
      • Kirchhoff's Rules
      • Electrical Appliances

      Moving Charges and Magnetism

      • Magnetic Lorentz Force
      • Motion in Combined E and B Fields
      • Biot Savart Law
      • Ampere's Law
      • The Solenoid and Toroid
      • Force on Current Carrying Wire
      • Torque on Current Carrying Loop

      Magnetism and Matter

      • Magnetic Field
      • Magnetic Properties

      Electromagnetic Induction

      • Magnetic Flux
      • Faraday's Laws of Induction
      • Motional emf
      • Eddy Currents
      • Inductance
      • AC Generator

      Alternating Current

      • AC Applied Across Resistor
      • AC Applied Across Capacitor
      • AC Applied Across Inductor
      • AC Applied to LCR in Series
      • Resonance in LCR Circuit
      • Power in AC Circuit

      Electromagnetic Waves

      • Characteristics of EM Waves
      • Electromagnetic Spectrum

      Ray Optics and Optical Instruments

      • Reflection by Spherical Mirrors
      • Refraction by Plane Surfaces
      • Total Internal Reflection
      • Refraction by Spherical Surfaces
      • Refraction by Lens
      • Refraction and Dispersion by Prism
      • Natural Phenomena Due to Sunlight
      • Optical Instruments

      Wave Optics

      • Huygen's Principle
      • Interference of Light
      • Diffraction of Light
      • Polarisation

      Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter

      • Photoelectric Effect
      • Dual Nature of Matter


      • Alpha Particle Scattering
      • Bohr's Model of Atom


      • Atomic Nucleus
      • Nuclear Energy
      • Radioactivity

      Semiconductor Electronics

      • Types of Materials
      • PN Diode
      • Applications of PN Diode
      • Transistors
      • Applications of Transistors
      • Logic Gates

      Communication Systems

      • Signals and Transmission Systems
      • Modulation and Detection of Signals
  • Biology |  View Syllabus

    • Reproduction in Organisms

      • Asexual Reproduction
      • Sexual Reproduction

      Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants

      • Prefertilisation: Structures and Events
      • Pollination
      • Double Fertilisation, Post Fertilisation: Structures and Events

      Human Reproduction

      • Male and Female Reproductive System
      • Gametogenesis and Menstrual Cycle
      • Fertilisation, Embryonic Development and Parturition

      Reproductive Health

      • Population Explosion and Birth Control
      • Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Infertility

      Principles of Inheritance and Variation

      • Mendel's Laws of Inheritance
      • Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance, Linkage and Recombination, Sex Determination
      • Mutations and Genetic Disorders

      Molecular Basis of Inheritance

      • DNA, RNA and Experiments on Genetic Material
      • DNA Replication
      • Transcription, Genetic Code and Types of RNA
      • Translation and Regulation of Gene Expression
      • Human Genome Project and DNA Fingerprinting


      • Origin of Life
      • Theories of Evolution
      • Mechanism of Evolution
      • Palaeontology and Human Evolution

      Human Health and Disease

      • Diseases in Humans and Immunity
      • AIDS and Cancer
      • Alcohol and Drug abuse

      Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production

      • Animal Husbandry
      • Plant Breeding
      • Single Cell Protein and Tissue Culture

      Microbes in Human Welfare

      • Microbes: Household Products, Industrial Products and Sewage Treatment
      • Microbes: Biogas, Biocontrol Agents and Biofertilisers

      Biotechnology : Principles and Processes

      • Tools of Recombinant DNA Technology
      • Processes of Recombinant DNA Technology

      Biotechnology and its Applications

      • Biotechnological Applications in Agriculture and Medicine
      • Transgenic Organisms and Ethical Issues in Biotechnology

      Organisms and Populations

      • Organism and its Environment
      • Population: Attributes and Growth
      • Population Interactions


      • Structure and Requirements of Ecosystem
      • Energy Flow and Ecological Pyramids
      • Ecological Succession and Biogeochemical Cycles

      Biodiversity and Conservation

      • Biodiversity and its Importance
      • Conservation of Biodiversity

      Environmental Issues

      • Air and Water Pollution and their Control
      • Solid wastes, Agrochemicals and Radioactive wastes
      • Greenhouse Effect, Ozone Depletion and Deforestation
  • Economics |  View Syllabus

    • Introduction to Macroeconomics

      • Emergence of Macroeconomics
      • Context of the Present Book of Economics

      Indian Economy on the Eve of Independence

      • Low Level of Economic Development under the Colonial Rule
      • Agriculture, Industry and Foreign Trade
      • Demography, Occupational Structure and Infrastructure

      Indian Economy 1950-1990

      • The Goals of Five Year Plans
      • Agriculture
      • Industry and Trade

      National Income Accounting

      • Income method and Expenditure method
      • Circular Flow of Income
      • Macroeconomic Aggregates
      • Classification of Goods and Value Added Method
      • Income and Expenditure Method
      • Some Basic Concepts of Macroeconomics
      • Circular Flow of Income and Methods of Calculating National Income

      Economic Reforms Since 1991

      • Concept of Demonetisation
      • Concept of GST
      • Liberalisation
      • Privatisation and Globalisation
      • Indian economy During Reforms: An Assessment

      Money and Banking

      • Barter System and Evolution and Functions of Money
      • Demand and Supply of Money
      • Commercial Banks & Money Creation Process
      • Functions of RBI and Instruments of Monetary Policy
      • The Supply of Money


      • Who are the Poor and their identification?
      • The Number of Poor in India and the Causes of Poverty
      • Policies and Programmes Towards Poverty Alleviation and its Critical Assessment

      Income Determination

      • Multiplier Mechanism, Deficit and Excess Demand
      • Aggregate Demand and its Components
      • Aggregate Supply and its Components
      • Equilibrium: AD-AS & S-I Approach and Adjustment Mechanism
      • Multiplier Mechanism and Paradox of Thrift
      • Deficit and Excess Demand
      • Ex Ante and Ex Post
      • The Short Run Fixed Price Analysis of the Product Market

      Human Capital Formation in India

      • Education Sector in India
      • Economic Growth and State of Human Capital Formation in India
      • Concept and Sources of Human Capital Formation

      The Government: Budget and the Economy

      • Government Budget and its Objectives
      • Government Budget and its Measures
      • Budget Deficit and its Measures

      Open Economy Macroeconomics

      • Balance of Payments
      • Exchange rate: Meaning and its types
      • Concept of Balance of Payments
      • Exchange Rate: Meaning and Types

      Rural Development

      • Rural Development and Rural Credit
      • Agricultural Marketing, Diversification of Agricultural Activities and Organic Farming

      Employment: Growth, Informalisation and Other Issues

      • Employment, Types and Participation of People
      • Employment Growth and Informalisation of Indian Workforce
      • Unemployment


      • Concept and Importance of Infrastraucture
      • Energy
      • Health

      Environment and Susutainable Development

      • Definition and Functions of Environment
      • State of India’s Environment
      • Sustainable Development and its Strategies

      Comparative Development Experiences of India and its Neighbours

      • One Child Policy of China
      • Role of FDI in Economic Development
      • Development Strategies of India, China and Pakistan
      • Comparative Study with respect to Demographic Indicators, GDP and HDI
  • Hindi |  View Syllabus