CBSE Class 12-commerce Syllabus

  • Economics |  View Syllabus

    • Macroeconomics

      Introduction to Macroeconomics

      • Emergence of Macroeconomics
      • Context of the Present Book of Economics

      National Income Accounting

      • Income method and Expenditure method
      • Circular Flow of Income
      • Macroeconomic Aggregates
      • Classification of Goods and Value Added Method
      • Income and Expenditure Method
      • Some Basic Concepts of Macroeconomics
      • Circular Flow of Income and Methods of Calculating National Income

      Money and Banking

      • Barter System and Evolution and Functions of Money
      • Demand and Supply of Money
      • Commercial Banks & Money Creation Process
      • Functions of RBI and Instruments of Monetary Policy
      • The Supply of Money

      Income Determination

      • Multiplier Mechanism, Deficit and Excess Demand
      • Aggregate Demand and its Components
      • Aggregate Supply and its Components
      • Equilibrium: AD-AS & S-I Approach and Adjustment Mechanism
      • Multiplier Mechanism and Paradox of Thrift
      • Deficit and Excess Demand
      • Ex Ante and Ex Post
      • The Short Run Fixed Price Analysis of the Product Market

      The Government: Budget and the Economy

      • Government Budget and its Objectives
      • Government Budget and its Measures
      • Budget Deficit and its Measures

      Open Economy Macroeconomics

      • Balance of Payments
      • Exchange rate: Meaning and its types
      • Concept of Balance of Payments
      • Exchange Rate: Meaning and Types
    • Indian Economic Development

      Indian Economy on the Eve of Independence

      • Low Level of Economic Development under the Colonial Rule
      • Agriculture, Industry and Foreign Trade
      • Demography, Occupational Structure and Infrastructure

      Indian Economy 1950-1990

      • The Goals of Five Year Plans
      • Agriculture
      • Industry and Trade

      Economic Reforms Since 1991

      • Concept of Demonetisation
      • Concept of GST
      • Liberalisation
      • Privatisation and Globalisation
      • Indian economy During Reforms: An Assessment


      • Who are the Poor and their identification?
      • The Number of Poor in India and the Causes of Poverty
      • Policies and Programmes Towards Poverty Alleviation and its Critical Assessment

      Human Capital Formation in India

      • Education Sector in India
      • Economic Growth and State of Human Capital Formation in India
      • Concept and Sources of Human Capital Formation

      Rural Development

      • Rural Development and Rural Credit
      • Agricultural Marketing, Diversification of Agricultural Activities and Organic Farming

      Employment: Growth, Informalisation and Other Issues

      • Employment, Types and Participation of People
      • Employment Growth and Informalisation of Indian Workforce
      • Unemployment


      • Concept and Importance of Infrastraucture
      • Energy
      • Health

      Environment and Susutainable Development

      • Definition and Functions of Environment
      • State of India’s Environment
      • Sustainable Development and its Strategies

      Comparative Development Experiences of India and its Neighbours

      • One Child Policy of China
      • Role of FDI in Economic Development
      • Development Strategies of India, China and Pakistan
      • Comparative Study with respect to Demographic Indicators, GDP and HDI
  • Mathematics |  View Syllabus

    • Relations and Functions

      • Introduction to Relations
      • Introduction to Functions
      • Problems on Functions
      • Composition of Functions
      • Problems on Composition
      • Binary Operations

      Inverse Trigonometric Functions

      • Introduction: Inverse Trigonometry
      • Properties of Inverse Trigonometry


      • Introduction to Matrices
      • Matrix Operations
      • Transpose of A Matrix
      • Elementary Operations


      • Introduction to Determinants
      • Properties of Determinants
      • Properties and Applications of Determinants
      • Minors and Co-factors
      • Solving Simultaneous Equations

      Continuity and Differentiability

      • Continuity
      • Differentiability and Chain Rule
      • Differentiation: Implicit Functions
      • Differentiation of Exponential Functions
      • Logarithmic Functions
      • Differentiation of Parametric Functions
      • Second Order Derivatives
      • Mean Value Theorems

      Applications of Derivatives

      • Rate of Change and Approximations
      • Increasing and Decreasing Functions
      • Tangents and Normals
      • Maxima - Minima - I Derivative Test
      • Maxima - Minima - II Derivative Test


      • Introduction to Integration
      • Integration by Substitution
      • Integrals of Special Functions
      • Integrals of Trigonometric Identities
      • Integration by Partial Fractions
      • Integration by Parts
      • More Problems on Integration
      • Limit of A Sum
      • Properties of Definite Integrals
      • Evaluating Definite Integrals
      • Problems on Definite Integrals

      Applications of Integrals

      • Area Between A Curve and A Line
      • Area Between Two Curves

      Differential Equations

      • Intro: Differential Equations
      • Variable Separable Form
      • Homogenous Differential Equations
      • Linear Differential Equations

      Vector Algebra

      • Introduction to Vector Algebra
      • Properties of Vectors
      • Scalar Product of Two Vectors
      • Cross Product

      Three Dimensional Geometry

      • Introduction to 3-D Geometry
      • Cartesian Equation of A Line
      • Skew Lines
      • Equation of Plane
      • Intercept Form and Family of Planes
      • Distance of A Point From A Plane

      Linear Programming

      • Introduction to Linear Programming
      • Optimal Solution
      • Solution of Linear Programming Problems


      • Introduction to Conditional Probability
      • Independent Events
      • Bayes' Theorem
      • Distribution of Random Variables
      • Mean and Variance of A Random Variable
      • Binomial Distribution
  • Business Studies |  View Syllabus

    • Business Studies Part I

      Nature and Significance of Management

      • Introductory Concepts of Management
      • Nature, Levels & Functions of Management
      • Coordination - The Essence of Management

      Principles of Management

      • Introduction to Principles of Management
      • Taylor's Scientific Management
      • Fayol's Principles of Management
      • Fayol v/s Taylor and Intertemporal Comparisons

      Business Environment

      • Introduction to Business Environment
      • Economic Environment in India


      • Introduction to Planning
      • Planning Process and Types of Plans


      • Introduction to Organising
      • Organisation Structure
      • Formal Organisation and Informal Organisation
      • Delegation and Decentralisation


      • Introduction to Staffing and its Process
      • Recruitment and its Sources
      • Selection, Training and Development


      • Concepts of Directing and Supervision
      • Motivation
      • Leadership
      • Communication


      • Introduction to Controlling
      • Controlling Process
    • Business Studies Part II


      • Marketing, its functions and Philosophies
      • Marketing Mix & Branding
      • Packaging, Labelling & Pricing
      • Physical distribution, Advertising and Personal Selling
      • Sales Promotion, Publicity & Public Relations

      Financial Management

      • Financial Management, Decisions and Planning
      • Capital Structure
      • Fixed & Working Capital

      Financial Markets

      • Concept of Financial Markets and Money Market
      • Capital Market: Primary and Secondary Market
      • Trading Procedure on Stock Exchange & SEBI

      Consumer Protection

      • Concept of Consumer Protection
      • Consumer Rights & Redressal Agencies
  • Accountancy |  View Syllabus

    • Accounting for Partnership: Basic Concepts

      • Nature of Partnership and Partnership Deed
      • Profit and Loss Appropriation Account
      • Partners' Capital Account and Cash Account
      • Interest on Capital, Drawings and Partners' Loan
      • Guarantee of Profits
      • Past Adjustments
      • Salary and Commission

      Reconstitution: Change in Existing Profit Sharing Ratio

      • Introduction to Reconstiturion and Calculation of Ratios
      • Treatment of Goodwill, Accumulated Profits and Losses
      • Revaluation and Partners' Capital Account
      • Balance Sheet of Reconstituted Firm

      Reconstitution: Admission of a Partner

      • Calculation of Ratios
      • Goodwill: Valuation and Treatment
      • Revaluation Account, Cash Account and Balance Sheet
      • Adjustment of Capital
      • Introduction to Admission of a Partner
      • Treatment of Reserves, Accumulated Profits and Losses

      Reconstitution: Retirement/Death of a Partner

      • Introduction to Retirement and Death & Calculation of Ratios
      • Treatment of Goodwill in case of Retirement and Death
      • Revaluation of Assets and Liabilities
      • JLP and Disposal of Amount Due to Partner
      • Adjustment of Capital
      • Death of a Partner
      • Treatment of Reserves, Accumulated Profits and Losses

      Dissolution of Partnership Firm

      • Introduction to Dissolution and Settlement of Accounts
      • Realisation Account, Partners' Loan Account
      • Treatment of JLP, IFF, Realisation Expenses, Goodwill and WCF
      • Partners' Capital Account and Cash Account

      Goodwill: Nature and Valuation

      • Introduction to Goodwill
      • Methods of Valuation of Goodwill

      Accounting for Not-for-Profit Organisation

      • Comprehensive Problems
      • Fund Based Accounting
      • Introduction to NPO & Final Accounts
      • Special Adjustments
      • Subscription Account

      Accounting for Share Capital

      • Preferential Allotment, Private Placement of Shares and ESOP
      • Introduction to Share Capital
      • Issue of Shares for Cash- Par, Premium and consideration other than cash
      • Full Subscription, Over Subscription and Under Subscription
      • Pro-rata Allotment and Call-in-Arrears/Advance
      • Forfeiture and Re-issue of Shares
      • Transfer to Capital Reserve and Disclosure in Balance Sheet

      Issue of Debentures

      • Debentures: Introduction, Issue for Cash and Consideration other than Cash
      • Issue of Debentures as Collateral Security
      • Subscription of Debentures
      • Issue of Debentures w.r.t. redemption terms
      • Interest on Debentures

      Redemption of Debentures

      • Writing off Losses and Redemption of Debentures
      • Introduction to Redemption of Debentures
      • Redemption by Purchase in Open Market
      • Redemption by Draw of Lots & Conversion
      • Redemption in Lumpsum

      Financial Statements of the Company

      • Meaning and Uses of Financial Statements
      • Income and Position Statements

      Analysis of Financial Statements

      • Comparative Statements
      • Introduction to Financial Statement Analysis
      • Common Size Statements

      Accounting Ratios

      • Ratios: Introduction and Liquidity Ratios
      • Activity Ratios
      • Profitabilty Ratios

      Cash Flow Statements

      • Cash Flow Statement: Classification, Format and Adjustments
      • Important Adjustments
  • Hindi |  View Syllabus